Jordan was named after the Jordan River, which passes on its western borders. Jordan is a country that combines remarkably different Arab cultures and dialects, and is not separated by any natural borders from its Arab neighbors except the Jordan River and the Yarmouk River, which respectively form part of its borders with Palestine and Syria. As for the rest of the borders, it is an extension of the Levantine desert in the north and east, the Nefout desert in the south, and Wadi Araba to the southwest.
The topography of Jordan varies greatly, and the most important of its mountains are the Ajloun Mountains in the northwest, and the Sharah Mountains in the south. The highest peak is that of Mount Umm al-Dami at 1854 meters, and the lowest point is in the Dead Sea, which is the lowest point in the world, at 408 meters below sea level.
The official use of it began on April 16, 1928. It is derived from the flag of the Great Arab Revolt, which was declared by Sharif Hussein bin Ali to the Ottoman Empire in 1916. It consists of its four colors. The length of the Jordanian flag is twice its width, and it is divided into three equal, parallel pieces; The upper one is black, the middle one is white, and the lower one is green. A red triangle (not upright) is placed on it at the side of the mast. Its base is equal to the width of the flag and its height is equal to half its length. In this triangle there is a white star with seven rays, the area of which can accommodate a circle whose diameter is one fourteenth of the length of the flag. The planet is placed so that its center is at the point of intersection of the lines between the angles of the triangle, and so that the axis passing through one of the vertices is parallel to the base of this triangle.The colors indicate the following:
The Jordanian dinar is the official currency in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and is issued by the Central Bank of Jordan. The Jordanian dinar is divided into 1000 fils, or 100 piasters. There are dinars in paper form for denominations 50, 20, 10, 5, and 1 dinar. Coins are available in 0.5, 0.25 dinars and 100, 50, 25, 10, and 5 fils. The price of the dinar is generally fixed against the dollar, with a value of $1.41 against the Jordanian dinar.
Jordan is a small country with limited resources, but its economy has been improving since its independence. Approximately 10% of Jordan's land is arable, groundwater resources are limited, and rainfall is low and varies greatly from one region to another and from year to year. Many groundwater resources are non-renewable. Jordan's most important resources are phosphates, potash, fertilizers and their derivatives, in addition to tourism and financial transfers from abroad, as well as foreign aid. Jordan lacks reserves of coal and hydroelectric power, the absence of large areas of forests and tree wealth, in addition to the lack of oil deposits. Jordan relies on natural gas for 10% of its domestic energy needs. Jordan was dependent on Iraq to import oil until the US invasion of Iraq in 2003, and Jordan is classified as an emerging country. The Kingdom's economy depends mainly on the service sector, trade and tourism, and on some extractive industries such as fertilizers and medicines, as Jordan is poor in natural resources. Phosphate mines are located in the south of the Kingdom, making Jordan the third largest exporter of this substance in the world. Other important materials extracted are potash, salts, natural gas and limestone. Since King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein assumed his constitutional powers as king in 1999, liberal economic policies were introduced, leading to a decade-long boom that lasted until 2009. Jordan is now one of the freest and most competitive economies in the Middle East with a higher rise than the UAE. United Arab Emirates and Lebanon. The banking sector in Jordan is advanced and modern, and thus it has become a preferred destination for investment as a result of its conservative policies that helped the Central Bank of Jordan avoid the global financial crisis in 2009. Jordan pins its hopes on tourism and uranium exports, in addition to oil shale, trade and information and communication technology to achieve economic growth in the future .
The regime in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is representative, monarchical and hereditary, and His Majesty King Abdullah II ascended the throne of the Kingdom, since February 7, 1999, after he declared by his oath before the National Assembly the fourth covenant for the Kingdom, whose founding was at the hands of the founding King Abdullah bin Al-Hussein, and its constitution was drafted by his grandfather King Talal, and its pillars were strengthened by his father, King Al-Bani Al-Hussein, may God rest their souls.
Jordan is divided into 12 governorates: Amman (the capital), Irbid, Zarqa, Mafraq, Ajloun, Jerash, Madaba, Balqa, Karak, Tafila, Ma'an, and Aqaba. Each governorate includes a number of districts and villages.
A city hewn in the rocks, built by the Arab Nabataeans more than two thousand years ago, and remained a witness to the human miracle that emerges from the stomachs of the mountains. It was the capital of the Nabataeans. Petra is located 262 km south of Amman, and it is one of the most important tourist attractions in Jordan. The visitor reaches the heart of Petra and passes through the Siq, that terrible rocky cleft with a length of more than 1000 meters and its rocky edges rising 300 meters. meters, and when the siq reaches its end, it bends in a sideways turn, then the shadows dissipate to reveal the greatest monument of splendor (Al Khazneh), one of the unique wonders of the universe, which is engraved in the solid rock on the front of the mountain, and its pink rock shines in the sunlight, 140 meters high and 140 meters wide. 90 metres. In the center of the city, the visitor sees hundreds of monuments dug and created by man, from lofty structures and extravagant royal mausoleums, to the large amphitheater that can accommodate seven thousand spectators, small and large houses, halls, celebration halls, water channels, tanks and bathrooms, in addition to the decorated rows of stairs, and markets. , and arched gates, and the monastery is considered one of the largest archaeological sites in Petra, as it is 50 meters wide, 45 meters high, and its door is 8 meters high. He sees the entire Palestinian land and Sinai.
Aqaba is located 360 km south of Amman, and in it the visitor enjoys the amazing sea world, and can practice his hobbies such as swimming, water skiing, fishing, sailing boats, or any kind of marine sports. As for those who wish to enjoy the sun, the clean Aqaba beach is an attractive place for them to spend quiet hours of meditation and relaxation, especially since all kinds of tourist services are available along the beach, and the visitor can take a walking tour in the city center and its market, to get to know the environment of Aqaba and buy traditional gifts. Which bears the memory of visiting the city, and varies between antiques made of copper and leather pieces wrought by skilled hands, in addition to oysters and shells.
The southern shore of the Dead Sea in Jordan is considered one of the most scenic and spiritual scenic spots in the entire world. And there is a series of new roads, hotels and archaeological discoveries that meet with each other to make this region, which is the lowest spot above sea level "410 meters", attractive to many visitors from all over the world, as it was in ancient times as well for kings, emperors, merchants and prophets. The main attraction of the Dead Sea lies in the hot and very salty sea water, which is four times saltier than normal sea water. It is rich in chloride salts of magnesium, sodium, potassium, bromine and many others. The salty waters, which are unusually rich in minerals, have attracted visitors since ancient times, who floated on their backs in an attempt to soak up the rich minerals in the waters, as well as the gentle Jordanian sunshine.